What Is Neurologic Disorder?

What Is Neurologic Disorder?

A neurologic disorder is any condition that results in a malfunction in part or all of the brain, nervous system, and/or physical symptoms.

The human brain’s development begins in pregnancy and continues through childhood, infancy and adolescence. While most brain cells can be formed before birth, the billions of connections between nerve cells (neurons), are not until infancy.

Gray matter (neurons and interconnections), and white matter (axons, surrounded by a myelin sheet) make up the brain. The motor neuron (above), carries impulses from the brain.

The brain is self-organizing. It uses the information to advance its growth and development. It also adapts itself to the environment. Brain connections are made when the brain experiences the environment through the senses, such as touch, smell and sight.

All neurologic disorders affect the brain and spinal column. The exact location of the damage can affect symptoms. Affected areas could affect communication, movement, vision, hearing, thinking, and communication.

There are many neurologic conditions. They can have many causes, complications, or outcomes. Many leads to additional management needs that can last a lifetime.

There are many symptoms of neurologic disorders. Neurologic disorders may present with a variety of symptoms, including behavioral, cognitive (or thinking), emotional, and behavioral signs. Certain disorders may also have a combination or cluster of these symptoms. South Valley Neurology will provide you with the best treatment. For example, cerebral paralysis tends to have more physical symptoms while ADHD tends to have greater behavioral effects.

Congenital Diseases (Present At Birth)

Many neurologic disorders are caused by genetic factors. They are often passed down from parents via genes and chromosomes.

Chromosomes can be described as long strands with DNA and protein that are found within the nuclei of cells.

Genes, which are sections of DNA that carry the chemical code that defines who we are, are called genes.

Normally, 46 (23 pairs) chromosomes are found in a human body cell. Half of these chromosomes are inherited from the mother and half from the father.

Gene Abnormalities

Genes are responsible for determining characteristics. Variations in genes (also called mutations) can alter characteristics. Some mutations may cause serious health issues, such as Cystic Fibrosis. Mutations can be passed onto offspring, affecting their character.

Chromosome Abnormalities

Because there are many genes in the chromosomes they can have significant effects on their characteristics.

Changes in the number and chromosomes

Monosomy refers to a loss in one chromosome from a pair, such as Turner syndrome. A pair has gained an additional chromosome in trisomy (for instance, Down syndrome).

Metabolic Disorders

The presence of metabolic disorders can cause long-term damage. It should be detected as soon as possible by blood or urine tests. PKU and homocystinuria (both metabolic disorders) are examples. PKU refers to an inherited condition in which high levels of phenylalanine in blood serum can cause phenylketonuria (present in food). This can lead to damage to brain cells as well as intellectual ability. Numerous metabolic disorders are diagnosed at birth when blood samples from newborns are taken.

Congenital Malformation

Complex interactions between genes, environment and behavior are thought to lead to congenital ‘defects’. Tuberous sclerosis can be an example. This is a condition that causes growths in the brain, heart and skin of children. They may also experience epilepsy, learning difficulties/impairments and autism.